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THE LONDON AGREEMENT

THE LONDON AGREEMENT THE London Agreement signed on 19th February, 1959 by the Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey, and accepted in declarations signed by the representatives of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot peoples, recognises that within twelve months Cyprus will become a Republic with a Presidential regime. Cyprus will thus become an independent State making its own laws through elected representatives of the people who will sit in a House of Representatives. The executive power will be in the hands of a President and a Vice-President, who will have a Council of Ministers. A Treaty signed by the United Kingdom, Greece, Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus will guarantee the independence of the new State as well as its constitution. Under Article I of the Treaty union with any other country or the partition of the Island will be prohibited. In the event of any breach of the Treaty the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey undertake to consult together, with a view to taking the necessary. steps to ensure observance of the Treaty. If common action becomes impossible, each of, the three powers reserves: the right to. take action to re-establish the state of affairs established by the Treaty. A Treaty of Alliance will be made between the Republic of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey for their common defence, and a tripartite military headquarters will be .established in Cyprus. quarters will be commanded successively, for a. period of one year each, by a Cypriot, a Greek and a Turkish General. Greece will have 950 and Turkey 650-troops (officers, N.C.O.s. and men) Cyprus will be represented by a contingent of its own new Army, « ~ who will be trained by the Greek and Turkish officers. The British Government have agreed to transfer sovereignty over the Island to the new Republic with the exception of two areas around Akrotiri-Episcopi and Dekhelia. These areas will be retained under full British sovereignty as military bases. The British Government have also made it a requirement that provisions must be made for the protection of the fundamental human rights of the various communities in Cyprus, and for the protection of the interests of Government servants. Provision must also be made for determining the nationality of persons affected by the settlement, and the Republic of Cyprus must assume certain obligations of the present Cyprus Government including the settlement of claims. Greece and Turkey, together with the Republic of Cyprus, undertake to respect the British sovereign bases, and the representa- tives of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot peoples, Archbishop Makarios and Dr. Kutchuk, have signed that they accept the docu- ments and declarations of the London Agreement as the agreed foundation of the final settlement of the problem of Cyprus. All parties concerned have endorsed the aim of bringing the constitution of the new State and the Treaties into full effect as soon as practicable, and in any case not later than 19th February, 1960. In order to prepare for the transfer of sovereignty to the new Republic, a Transitional Committee has been established in Nicosia. This Committee is at present composed of the Governor of Cyprus, who is Chairman, Archbishop Makarios and Dr. Kutchuk, but other Greek and Turkish Cypriot appointments are expected by the end of March. Members of the Governor’s Executive Council: will sit with this Committee during the coming months, whenever this seems desirable. In addition to the Transitional Committee there will be a Joint Committee which will sit in London. This Committee will be composed of one representative each -of the Governments of Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom, as well as a Greek and a Turkish Cypriot. It will prepare the final treaties giving effect to the London Agreement, and will deal with matters arising from the retention 2f those areas in Cyprus which will be retained under British sovereignty the provision of certain additional rights and facilities questions of nationality the treatment of the liabilities of the present Cyprus Government and financial and economic problems which will arise from the creation of the new Republic. Finally a Joint Commission will be established in Cyprus to complete the draft constitution for the Republic. Its members will be a Greek and a Turkish Cypriot, one representative each of the Governments of Greece and Turkey, together with a legal adviser nominated by the Foreign Minister of Greece and Turkey. Its duty will be to draw up a draft constitution for the Republic on the basis of the structure agreed at Zurich and endorsed in London. The following is an outline of the basic structure of the new Republic. This head- | THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS EXECUTIVE POWER GREEK PRESIDENT TURKISH VICE-PRESIDENT COUNCIL OF MINISTERS 7 Greek Ministers and 3 Turkish Ministers Cyprus shall be a Republic, the President being Greek and tit Vice-President Turkish, elected for five years. ο: Executive ‘authority ‘shall be vested in the President and the Vice-President. They shall have a Council of Ministers composed of 7 Greek Ministers απά 3 Furkish Ministers these Ministers may be chosen from outside the House of Representatives. One of the following three Ministries —the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of “Foreign Affairs’ and the Ministry of Finance— will be headed by 4 Turkish Minister. , Decisions of the Council of Ministers will be by majority vote. LEGISLATIVE POWER HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 70% Greeks 30% Turks Ώφθθφθττ The laws of the Republic will be made by a House of Represen- tatives, 70% Greek and 30% Turkish, and these representatives will be elected for a period of five years. The House of Representatives shall exercise authority in all matters other than those which are expressly reserved for Communal Chambers. . ο. Laws and decisions will be adopted by a simple majority of members present. But the Constitution itself may only be amended by the House if the amendment is adopted by two-thirds of the Greek members, and by two-thirds of the Turkish.members, of the whole House. The electoral law, any law on municipalities, and any law imposing duties or taxes may only be amended or passed if adopted by a simple majority of Gréek members actually present and of ‘Turkish members actually present, both groups voting separately. The President and the Vice-President, separately and conjointly, shall have the right of final veto on any law or decision concerning foreign affairs, defence and security, except that they cannot veto the participation of Cyprus in international organisations and pacts of alliance in which Greece and Turkey both participate. | COMMUNAL ASSEMBLIES The Greek and Turkish communities will each have a Communal Assembly. . | GREEK ASSEMBLY | / | TURKISH ASSEMBLY | The number of representatives in each assembly will be decided by each community separately. These Communal Chambers shall have the right to impose taxes and levies on members of their com- munity to provide for their needs and for the needs of bodies and institutions under their supervision. . The assemblies will be competent to deal with the following matters :— Religious affairs. Educational affairs. Cultural and teaching questions. Personal status of the people. a, Sporting and charitable foundations, bodies and associations. Producer and consumer co-operatives. . Credit establishments created for the purpose of promoting communal welfare. Single community municipalities. In case of conflict of authority, whether a matter should be _ dealt with by the House of Representatives or by the Communal (CONTINUED ON PAGE 6) Assemblies, a decision will be taken by the Supreme Constitutional Court. MUNICIPALITIES Separate Turkish municipalities will be created in the five largest towns of Cyprus. A co-ordinating body will be set up in each of these towns composed of two members from the Greek municipality, two from the Turkish municipality and a President to be chosen by agreement between the two municipalities. The President and Vice-President of the Cypriot Republic will examine the question of separate municipalities within four years after their establishment to decide whether or not this separation shall continue. SUPREME CONSTITUTIONAL COURT Laws and decisions passed by the House of Representatives which are considered by the President or Vice-President to discri- minate against either of the two communities will be submitted to the Supreme Constitutional Court, composed as under :— MEMBER Greek Judge PRESIDENT Neutral Judge MEMBER Turkish Judge The Court may annul or confirm the law or return it to the House of Representatives for further examination. On the adoption of the budget, the President and Vice-President may exercise their right to return it to the House of Representatives, if in their opinion any question of discrimination arises, If the House maintains its decisions the President and the Vice-President shall have the right of reference to the Supreme Constitutional Court. HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE TWO GREEK PRESIDENT TURKISH JUDGE JUDGES NEUTRAL JUDGE 1 vote 1 vote each & a casting vote 1 vote A High Court of Justice will be established consisting of two Greek Judges, one Turkish Judge and a neutral President. Civil disputes, where the plaintiff and defendant belong to the same community, shall be tried by a tribunal composed of judges belonging to that. community. If they belong to different communities the tribunal will be of mixed composition. In criminal cases the tribunal will consist of judges belonging to the same community as the accused, If the injured party and the accused belong to different communities the tribunal will be of mixed composition. The President and the Vice-President shall each have the right to exercise the prerogative of mercy to persons from their respective communities sentenced to death. THE CIVIL SERVICE | 10% Greeks | The Civil Service will be composed of 70% Greek Cypriots and 30% Turkish Cypriots, and these percentages will apply, as far as 1t is practicable, in all grades of the Civil Service. The President and the Vice-President will together, acting in agreement, nominate those to fill the following posts :— The Attorney-General and his deputy. The Inspector-General and his deputy. The Treasurer and his deputy. The Governor of the issuing Bank and his deputy. The principals and deputies shall not be from the community. MILITARY AND SECURITY FORCES ARMY Cyprus shall have an army of : | 2,000 men... .. . 60% Greek 40% Turk Cyprus shall also have a eal GENDARMERIE AND POLICE | 30% Turks same darmerie and Police Force of 2000 men... ..| 70% Greek | 30% Turk The President and the Vice-President will appoint the Head and Deputy Head of the Armed Forces, the Police and Gendarmerie. One of these Heads will be Turkish. Where the Head belongs to one of the communities the Deputy Head shall belong to the other. For an initial period the numbers of Police may be raised to a maximum of 40% of Turks in order not to discharge those Turks now serving in the regular Police Force. Compulsory military service may be instituted only with the agreement of the President and Vice-President of the Republic of Cyprus.